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Positioning By Earth's Magnetic Anomaly Field

Positioning By Earth's Magnetic Anomaly Field

Realizing worldwide dependable alternatives to the Global Positioning System is a challenging engineering problem. Current Global Positioning System alternatives often suffer from limitations such as where and when the systems can operate. Navigation using Earth's magnetic anomaly field, which is globally available at all times, shows promise to overcome many of these limitations. We present a navigation framework that uses Earth's magnetic anomaly field as a navigation signal to aid an inertial navigation system in a Submarine, aircraft, and Submersible Aircraft TSAMA of MD's(Muayad Alsamaraee). The filter utilizes ultra-accurate optically pumped cesium magnetometers to make scalar intensity measurements of Earth's magnetic field and compare them with a map using a particle filter approach. The accuracy of these measurements allows observability of not only the inertial navigation system errors but also the temporal effects of Earth's magnetic field, which corrupt the navigation signal. ... We present a breakthrough solution that allows near worldwide use of the navigation.

Gravity and magnetic anomalies are defined as the deviation of the observed quantities, i.e., gravitational acceleration (or simply gravity) and magnetic flux density, respectively, from the expected value of a reference Earth.

The source of these anomalies is primarily permanent magnetization carried by titanomagnetite minerals in basalt and gabbro’s. They are magnetized when ocean crust is formed at the ridge. As magma rises to the surface and cools, the rock acquires a thermoremanent magnetization in the direction of the field.

A magnetic anomaly is the change in magnitude of the earth's magnetic field with respect to the expected value for that location. Large volumes of magnetic materials will change the intensity of the earth's field. The units of magnetic anomalies are nanotesla (nT) or the equivalent gamma. 

Muayad Alsamaraee & its owned JAI, proposes novel methods with the potential to improve the performance of navigation and tracking systems in underwater environments. The work relies on well-established methods of potential field inversion and introduces a new analytic formulation designed to stabilize the solution of the inverse problem in real-time applications. The navigation method proposed exploits the terrain information associated with geomagnetic field anomalies, without the need of a priori maps. The procedure can also be applied to track a moving vehicle based on its associated disturbance of the environmental magnetic field. We envision the integration of these methods in terrain-aided navigation systems, simultaneous localization and mapping algorithms, and tracking applications.

Based on the characteristics of the geomagnetism, numbers of methods have been developed. The principal idea is employed based on the matching algorithms, such as MSD (Mean Square Difference), MAD (Mean Absolute Difference), ICCP (Iterative Closest Contour Point Algorithm), traditional matching algorithms strongly depend on a priori geomagnetic map, which is quite challenging to acquire during practice.  the missions of navigation and tracking systems in underwater, overwater and/or Air environments.

Muayad Alsamaraee, and JAI team in Jordan Since 2003 they invented a solution for that by using magnetic survey, one of the tools used by exploration geophysicists in their search for mineral-bearing ore bodies or even oil-bearing sedimentary structures and by archaeologists to locate and map the remains of buried structures. … Magnetic surveys are a geophysical method to image anomalies in the earth's magnetic field caused by source bodies within the sub-surface. Oil and gas exploration use magnetic anomalies to detect faults and igneous intrusions.

Muayad Alsamaraee, and his team (JAI Experts) have been continuing their work for 20 years to build an independent and reliable navigation system in the submersible plane that Muayad Alsamaraee, has invented since 2001. ... Standalone-internal navigation system similar to GPS that allows TSAMA Submersible Aircraft to use Earth's magnetic forces to travel long distances with accuracy. By Geomagnetic Navigation of Autonomous Air and/or Underwater Vehicle Based on Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm. 

Scientists know that today the Earth's magnetic field is powered by the solidification of the planet's liquid iron core. The cooling and crystallization of the core stirs up the surrounding liquid iron, creating powerful electric currents that generate a magnetic field stretching far out into space.

As water flows around the planet, these ions are deflected by the Earth's magnetic field – positive ions are pushed one-way, negative ions the other. This builds up volumes of positively and negatively charged water, sometimes on a scale of thousands of kilometers. 

The geomagnetic field of the earth is very similar to the field of a bar magnetic and has played a major part in navigation over the centuries. By using a compass needle which aligns itself with the magnetic poles of the earth, navigators were able to determine which direction was North and which was South.

Magnetic anomaly navigation uses scalar magnetometers as sensors to measure differences in magnetic fields. Comparing these measurements with magnetic-field maps can provide information resulting in position determination. 

A marine magnetic survey is the measurement of Earth's magnetic field intensity or its components (such as vertical component) along a series of profiles over an area of interest with the objective of measuring the magnetism of the ocean floor.

Humans do not have a magnetic sense, despite having a cryptochrome (cry2) in the retina which is magneto sensitive when exposed to light. A 2019 study found that magnetic fields do affect human alpha brain waves, but it is not known whether this results in any change in behavior.

Sharks don't just randomly swim around hoping to come across prey. They can follow Earth's magnetic field and use it to navigate. Studies have proven that sharks can detect magnetic fields in water and use them to locate prey in the ocean. 

Scientists in Florida have concluded that sharks possess an internal navigation system similar to GPS that allows them to use Earth's magnetic forces to travel long distances with accuracy. 

The researchers from Florida State University made the discovery by subjecting 20 bonnethead sharks, part of the hammerhead family, to “magnetic displacement” exercises that replicated geographical locations hundreds of miles from where they were captured.

Sharks have special sensing organs called ampullae of Lorenzini that can detect electric and magnetic fields in water. This electroreceptor organ consists of a network of jelly-filled pores. Sharks have an extraordinary sensitivity to electric fields. When animals contract their muscles, it produces an electric field. Sharks can detect the weak electric fields generated by muscle contractions and may use it to find prey. As a moving conductor, water induces an electric field when a magnetic field like Earth’s is present. So, sharks can use their special sixth sense to detect magnetic fields as well.